RAMPS 1.4 3D Printer Controller Board

RAMPS 1.4 3D Printer Controller Board

RAMPS 1.4

Stepper Driver Boards
Jumpers need to be installed under each stepper driver:
jumper   Yes/No  step size
1     2    3
no   no    no    full step
yes  no    no    half step
no   yes   no    1/4 step
yes  yes   no    1/8 step
yes  yes   yes   1/16 step

For now the default is 1/16 micro stepping (all jumpers installed under drivers)
Cut the pin headers to 8 pins long so that they fit each side of the stepper driver.
Insert the pin headers into the sockets on RAMPS

Fit the stepper drivers onto the pin headers and solder. Only heat each pin for a few seconds at time to avoid damage to the socket.
Glue the heat-sink (if used) to the top of the A4988/A4983 chip using the provided pad of double-sided adhesive.

Opto Endstops
Opto endstop build instructions can be found at Gen7_Endstop_1.3.1, and also here for reprapsource.com’s instructions.
Cut the 26awg 3 conductor cable into 3 length.Close up of endstop connector on endstop.
Note: you may want to wait until you’ve built your machine to cut the cables to the perfect length.Close up of endstop connection on RAMPS
crimp and solder a female connector to the ends of each wire. (solder not necessary with proper crimp tools)
use the 2.54mm 1×3 housing.
Connect at least the minimum endstops.

RAMPS End
SIG (S)    White
GND (-)    Black
VCC (+)    Red
Endstop End
VCC (+)    Red
SIG (S)    White
GND (-)    Black
Mechanical Endstops
MechSwitches 2Wire.JPG

The recommended firmware will provide a configuration to use mechanical endstops with just two wires.
Find the area labelled “endstops” in the upper right corner of the board and for each of the X, Y, and Z pairs of pins (label should be below each set) do the following:
Connect S (top row, labelled to the left) on RAMPS to NC on the switch.
Connect GND on RAMPS to C on the switch.
Note: The latest firmware such as Marlin seems to use NO as the default pin on the switch. Otherwise you may need to invert the endstops in the firmware. You can use M119 to check your endstops status.
Put the connectors on the motor wires
solder a female connector to the ends of each wire.
use the 2.54mm 1×3 housing.
Shown is the type used for servos in RC projects. See Stepper Motors for info on motors.

Thermistor Wires
Use a 2 pin 0.1″ connector to terminate the thermistor wires.
Connect the cable so the 2 wires go to T0
Connect the 2 heater wires to D10 (E0H on older boards) and the + connection above it.
If changing to an unverified firmware it is best to verify heater circuit function with a meter before connecting heater to prevent damage to the extruder.
Pololu carriage
This section assumes you are using Pololu, but there are other options. Insert two 1×8 pin headers into the board. If you bought a kit with one 16 pin header, simply cut it so that you have two 1×8. Make sure that the side with the labels has the long ends of the posts, and the side you want to solder is the side with the heat sink. Doing this backwards will cause you not to see the labels and will most likely not fit. Remember to apply a heat-sink to the largest chip on the back.
Final Setup

Pre-Flight Check

If you think you may have mistakes you can install only one stepper driver during initial testing and risk only one stepper driver.
The trimpot on the stepper drivers controls the current limit. Turn it all the way down (counter clock wise) and back up 25%. Be careful to not force the trimpot, it is delicate. You will need to fine tune the current limit later. Note that it is always giving the motors that much power, even when not moving, so if your stepper motor drivers are getting hot, you may want to turn it down slightly.
Connect the minimum endstops for X,Y, and Z
Connect Motors (Do not disconnect or connect motors while powered; if the connection is loose, this will cause the motors to spazz and possibly kill your stepper driver.)
You may want to use this code to test all the electronics before installing any of the suggested firmware’s.
Install firmware (More info below). Firmware flashing can be done without 12V power supply connected.
Wiring

It is relatively simple to wire up the RAMPS. Just add the extruder heating coil wire to D10, the thermistor to the two T0 pins on middle right right, and wire up the steppers and endstops. From left to right, wire all of the stepper motor’s wires as red, blue, green, and black or red, green, yellow, blue into the pins next to the Pololus. When you connect the wires to the endstops (if you are using 3 endstops, plug them into the MIN (-) slots), make sure you match the labels.

Warnings
Reversing +/- or otherwise incorrectly connecting power can destroy your electronics and cause fire hazard.
Incorrectly inserting stepper drivers will destroy your electronics and cause a fire risk. Always make sure power and USB is disconnected when removing or adjusting stepper drivers. Always make sure to insert drivers in correct orientation and in the socket correctly.

The endstop pins are Signal – GND – VCC, instead of the VCC – Sig – GND like the rest of RepRaps boards. Make sure to wire them correctly. This is done to allow squeezing fatter traces on the printable board.
DON’T secure Arduino/RAMPS with conductive screws through both mounting holes. The screw may cut into the positive trace creating a HIGH current short.
Connecting Power

Connect your 12V power supply to the RAMPS shield. Reversing +/- or otherwise incorrectly connecting power can destroy your electronics and cause fire hazard.
The bottom pair of connectors marked 5A power the stepper drivers and Extruder heater/fan (D9, D10). The source should be rated a minimum of 5A.
The pair of connectors above marked 11A power a Heated Bed, or other output (D8). The source should be rated a minimum 11A (if both power rails are connected to the same supply it should have a minimum rating of 16A).
The barrel connector, on the Arduino MEGA, will NOT power RAMPS and will not provide power to the stepper motors, heated bed, etc.
The power connector plug may not be obviously labeled, looking at the power connection the positive is on the left and the negative is on the right of the plug.
Power Supply

Where to find the D1 diode (note that D2 is shown at the left, not D1)
RAMPS is quite happy with the 12 V line from PC Power Supply. Or you can hack up a 12V laptop power supply, or other 12 V “wall wart” power supply. Be sure that the power can output 5A or greater. Additional 11A may be needed for heated bed support.
See Connecting power above.

The 3 pins next to the reset switch are meant to optionally connect to your PSU.
The PS_ON pin is intended to switch your power supply on and off. Many firmware’s support pulling this pin low with M80 command to turn the power supply on, and M81 to turn it off. This behavior is desired for ATX power supplies and can be modified in firmware to support 5V high power supplies like those borrowed from an Xbox.

Without D1 installed, or when the 12VIN is not connected, the Arduino gets its power from USB. If you want your kit powered without USB connected you need to solder in D1 OR connect VCC to your PSU.
The VCC pin can be connected to your ATX’s 5Vsb to continuously power the Arduino from your ATX power supply. You will want to make sure that D1 is not installed or cut out. The Arduino is not designed to be powered directly on the VCC rail and the VIN pin at the same time.
If you want to use PS_ON to turn on your power supply then don’t use diode D1, you need your Arduino to be powered from 5Vsb otherwise when no USB is connected the PS_ON pin floats (and your power supply pulses on and off).
The 5V pin in that connector on RAMPS only supplies the 5V to the auxiliary servo connectors. It is designed so that you can jumper it to the VCC pin and use the Arduino’s power supply to supply 5V for extra servos if you are only powered from USB or 5V. Since there is not a lot of extra power from the Arduino’s power supply you can connect it directly to your 5V power supply if you have one. You can also leave this pin not connected if you have no plan to add extra servos.

Maximum Input Voltage
Power Supply without diode
There are three limiting factors to the maximum voltage that you can put into the RAMPS:
The Arduino Mega maximum input voltage
Filtering capacitor maximum voltages
PTC fuse maximum voltages
First, the 1N4004 diode connects the RAMPS input voltage to the Arduino Mega which has a recommended maximum input voltage of 12 volts. If your board does not have this diode soldered in (or if you cut it), you will need to power the Mega through the USB connector or through a separate 5v line, but this allows a higher RAMPS voltage.
Second, most boards use 25v or 35v aluminum electrolytic capacitors (C2, C3, C4, C6, C7, C9, and C10). To be safe, you should only go to half of your rated maximum voltage — thus if your board has 35v capacitors (code VZA) then you should use a maximum input of 17.5v. The absolute maximum voltage is determined by the pololu servo drivers, which themselves are limited to 35V.
Third, the MF-R500 (5A) PTC fuse is rated to 30V and the MF-R1100 (11A) PTC fuse is rated to 16V. They will need to be replaced with real fuses.
Power Supply with diode
If your board has a 1N4004 diode soldered in, do not apply more than 12 V to it. Original flavor Arduino Mega are rated to 12 V input. While Arduino Mega 2560 can take 20 V, it is not recommended.

Firmware and Pin Assignments
RAMPS 1.4 uses the same pin definitions as 1.3.
You will need the Arduino software at http://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/Software to upload the firmware to Arduino Mega. The version of Arduino you need may be determined by the firmware you want to use. The current (as of 2014-01-22) Marlin firmware is compatible with Arduino version 1.0.5. Some other firmwares may require Arduino software version 0023, NOT the most recent version. Please see your firmware documentations if you need assistance.

Troubleshooting: You may need to make sure that the driver is installed for the Arduino MEGA by going to Control Panel -> Hardware and Sound -> Device Manager. If the device that appears/disappears when you plug in and unplug the board USB is “Unknown Device” under “Other devices”, then you need to right click on the device and click the update driver button. Find where on your computer you saved/installed the Arduino software, and tell the wizard to search in the driver folder there. Windows 8 will give this error: “The third party INF does not contain digital signature”. If so, save the zip for the latest version of Arduino on your PC, and repeat the steps above with the driver folder in there. It should contain the digital signature Windows needs.
Sprinter and Marlin are popular and stable firmwares for RAMPS as of 3/28/2012. Pronterface is a cross platform printer control program that can be used for testing/printing.
Working preconfigured Sprinter firmware can be downloaded at http://ultimachine.com/sites/default/files/UltiMachineRAMPS1-4Sprinter.zip . Mechanical is in the folder ending with ME, optical endstop firmware is in the folder ending in OE.

Working preconfigured Marlin firmware can be downloaded at http://www.mediafire.com/?un8s4i2lvdgd875 . is for mechanical endstops. For optical, you will need to reverse the endstop logic in configuration.h. The language of display is in italian, but can easy be changed in language.h. It is preconfigured for the RepRap Discount Smart Controller and similar LCD module. You will need to disable LCD in configuration.h if not using it.
Others (Need pins set in Firmware as below):
mechanical endstops (now the default ultimachine.com option) require #define OPTO_PULLUPS_INTERNAL 1 to be added to configuration.h if not there by default.
Here are the pin definitions for this board.

For RAMPS 1.4


#define X_STEP_PIN         54
#define X_DIR_PIN          55
#define X_ENABLE_PIN       38
#define X_MIN_PIN           3
#define X_MAX_PIN           2

#define Y_STEP_PIN         60
#define Y_DIR_PIN          61
#define Y_ENABLE_PIN       56
#define Y_MIN_PIN          14
#define Y_MAX_PIN          15
#define Z_STEP_PIN         46
#define Z_DIR_PIN          48
#define Z_ENABLE_PIN       62
#define Z_MIN_PIN          18
#define Z_MAX_PIN          19
#define E_STEP_PIN         26
#define E_DIR_PIN          28
#define E_ENABLE_PIN       24
#define SDPOWER            -1
#define SDSS               53
#define LED_PIN            13
#define FAN_PIN            9
#define PS_ON_PIN          12
#define KILL_PIN           -1
#define HEATER_0_PIN       10
#define HEATER_1_PIN       8
#define TEMP_0_PIN          13   // ANALOG NUMBERING
#define TEMP_1_PIN          14   // ANALOG NUMBERING

GT2560

Posted by admin 14/06/2015 0 Comment(s) Lab Wiki

GT2560, two boards into one, this makes it more reliable and reduce downstream problems.

GT2560 is a compact board that is integrated with the mighty function of the Arduino Mega2560+Ultimaker and Arduino Mega2560+ramps 1.4 on respect of both software and hardware and has more premium features: the streamlined interfaces effectively avoid the unnecessary troubles, well-regulated compaction of components highly integrated saves more space and easier to be mounted on most applications.
5 stepper motors, swappable driving modules, mighty ATmega2560 processor with 256k memory, 16MHz operating frequency, high-performance USB serial converter FT232RQ, all these make the GT2560 an ideal option for a 3D printer control board. What’s more, GT2560 can run over 12V to 24V which gives higher torque and higher rotation rate.
Features: 

1.Integrated with the mighty function of the Arduino Mega2560+Ultimaker and Arduino Mega2560+ramps 1.4 kit, The GT2560 can not only take full place of them on respect of both software and hardware, but also features compact size, more convenient connection, and more stable.

2. Adopt ATmega2560 as the main control chip, coupled with the high-performance USB serial converter FT232RQ
.
3. The power pack: operating voltage is 12V-24V; double power supply design provide for heatbed and logical part separately,overcurrent protection is also provided.

4. The main circuit adopts SMD fuse tube, the diode added to the power port can provide reverse protection to the whole circuit, in addition, the 5V USB is USB port protected with 500mA Recoverable fuse.

5.3 12v fan output and one PWM output for LED or other lighting equipment.

6. 3 55Amp MOSFET (with LED indicator, the actual output is restricted by the PCB board and the connector), all 3 MOSFET are equipped with heat sink to ensure sufficient heat dissipation and stable operation.

7. Support 5 A4988 stepper drivers (3 for X/Y/Z axis, and 2 for extruders); the subdivision of stepper motor can be setup by dial switch, eliminating jumper caps, easier to operate.

8. 3 temperature sensor input (100k thermistor is recommended)

9. Extended LCD and SD card interface support both LCD2004 and LCD 12864, with which you can print without your PC.

10. The firmware is the prevalent Marlin, which is known for stability, usability, and high-performance.
ramps to gt2560 2

Hardware resources:
12V 12A and 12V 5A power supply
1 power port for heatbed and 2 for extruder
5 stepper motor input, (3 for X/Y/Z axis, and 2 for extruders)
Extended LCD & SD card interface
6 endstop input(X-MIN ,Y-MIN ,Z-MIN 和X-MAX ,Y-MAX ,Z-MAX)
3 input for thermistor (TEMP1, TEMP2 and TEMP3)
3 input for12V cooling fan
1 PWM output

Dimension: 107.3mm*78.7mm*22mm
Weight: 80 g

Software Resources
Compiling environment: Arduino IDE
Firmware: Marlin
Host software:printrun Repetier-Host
Source

Arduino ide
Marlin
printrun
Repetier-Host

Interface specifications

1.DC IN: 12V 12A and 12V 5A
2.HOT_BED: heat bed
3.HEATER1: power supply for extruder 1
4.HEATER2: power supply for extruder 2
5.LCD ENCODER: LCD panel
6.SD Card
7. X_MIN/X_MAX/Y_MIN /Y_MAX /Z_MIN /Z_MAX: 6 end stop input (XH2.54-2 pin)
8. TEMP1: temperature sensor for extruder 1(XH2.54-2 pin)
9. TEMP2: temperature sensor for extruder 2(XH2.54-2 pin)
10. TEMP3: temperature sensor for heatbed(XH2.54-2 pin)
11. X,Y,Z:Stepper motors for X, Y, Z axis, XH2.54-4Pin
12. EXT1, EXT2(A):Stepper motors for extruder 1 and extruder 2, XH2.54-4Pin
13. FAN1,FAN2,FAN3:3 12V cooling fans, PH2.0-3Pin
14. PWM: PWM output for cooling fan (FAN: PH2.0-3pin)
subdivision of stepper motor

The subdivision of stepper motor can be setup by dial switch, turn on all the dial switch, as the arrow shows

rumba driver terminal

  1. Subdivision on the base of A4988 stepper driving module:Turn ON/OFF            Subdivision
    MS1    MS2    MS3
    OFF    OFF    OFF    full step
    ON     OFF    OFF    1/2 step
    OFF    ON     OFF    1/4 step
    ON     ON     OFF    1/ 8 step
    ON     ON     ON     1/16 step
  2. Subdivision on the base of Drv8825 stepper driving module:Turn   ON/OFF         Subdivision
    MS1    MS2    MS3
    OFF    OFF    OFF    full step
    ON     OFF    OFF    1/2 step
    OFF    ON     OFF    1/4 step
    ON     ON     OFF    1/ 8 step
    OFF    OFF    ON     1/16 step
    ON     OFF    ON     1/32 step
    OFF    ON     ON     1/32 step
    ON     ON     ON     1/32 stepDevelopment Environment setting

Note:
Pay attention to the Plus-n-Minus of the power connector, reverse connection can cause irrevocably damages.
A4988 should also be connected to the right port, mismatches and revered directions can cause damage to the main board.
The correct connections are as follow:

A4088 drivers

If you are using DRV8825 instead of A4988, The correct connections are as follow:

drv8825 driver

3.You are suggested to connect all the Periphery modules before testing.
Manufacturers default settings, the factory settings for these drivers are set to 1.5v which is too high for most stepper motors currently used in 3D pritners.

Therefore the pot must be decreased to around 0.5v – 0.6v, this ensures the steppers are being power at around 1A.

A volt meter is the best way to calibrate these drivers, black probe on the usb terminal and red probe on the pot. If users are driving two steppers from one driver then this voltage may need increaing to suit.

Software Resources

Compiling environment: Arduino IDE
Firmware: Marlin
Host software:Printrun, Repetier-Host, Cura

Source

Arduino ide

Marlin

printrun

Repetier-Host

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